Research

SMART CONTRACTS

Development of Domain-Specific Languages for smart contracts

SECURITY

Security analysis of smart contracts and blockchain-based applications

FRAUD ANALYSIS

Blockchain-based monetary fraud analysis and detection

DATA ANALYTICS

Custom data analysis on blockchain (de-anonymisation, attack patterns, ...)

DEVELOPMENT

Design and development of blockchain-based applications (on Bitcoin, Ethereum, ...)

CONSULTANCY

Business consultancy on blockchain technologies and cyber-security

Selected Publications
Full list of papers

SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts

N. Atzei, M. Bartoletti, T. Cimoli, S. Lande, R. Zunino.

Principles of Security and Trust, 2018.

Albeit the primary usage of Bitcoin is to exchange currency, its blockchain and consensus mechanism can also be exploited to securely execute some forms of \emph{smart contracts}. These are agreements among mutually distrusting parties, which can be automatically enforced without resorting to a trusted intermediary. Over the last few years a variety of smart contracts for Bitcoin have been proposed, both by the academic community and by that of developers. However, the heterogeneity in their treatment, the informal (often incomplete or imprecise) descriptions, and the use of poorly documented Bitcoin features, pose obstacles to the research. In this paper we present a comprehensive survey of smart contracts on Bitcoin, in a uniform framework. Our treatment is based on a new formal specification language for smart contracts, which also helps us to highlight some subtleties in existing informal descriptions, making a step towards automatic verification. We discuss some obstacles to the diffusion of smart contracts on Bitcoin, and we identify the most promising open research challenges.